# VBA: Calling Python from Excel¶

## Import the xlwings VBA module into Excel¶

To get access to the RunPython function in VBA, you need to import the VBA module xlwings.bas into the VBA editor:

• Open the VBA editor with Alt-F11
• Then go to File > Import File... and import the xlwings.bas file. It can be found in the directory of your xlwings installation.

If you don’t know the location of your xlwings installation, you can find it as follows:

$python >>> import xlwings >>> xlwings.__path__  An even easier way is to start from a template that already includes the xlwings VBA module and boilerplate code. Use the command line client like this (for details see: Command Line Client): $ xlwings template open


## Settings¶

While the defaults will often work out-of-the box, you can change the settings at the top of the xlwings VBA module under Function Settings:

PYTHON_WIN = ""
PYTHON_MAC = ""
PYTHON_FROZEN = ThisWorkbook.Path & "\build\exe.win32-2.7"
PYTHONPATH = ThisWorkbook.Path
UDF_PATH = ""
LOG_FILE = ThisWorkbook.Path & "\xlwings_log.txt"
SHOW_LOG = True
OPTIMIZED_CONNECTION = False

• PYTHON_WIN: This is the directory of the Python interpreter on Windows. "" resolves to your default Python installation on the PATH, i.e. the one you can start by just typing python at a command prompt.
• PYTHON_MAC: This is the directory of the Python interpreter on Mac OSX. "" resolves to your default installation as per PATH on .bash_profile. To get special folders on Mac, type GetMacDir("Name") where Name is one of the following: Home, Desktop, Applications, Documents.
• PYTHON_FROZEN [Optional]: Currently only on Windows, indicates the directory of the exe file that has been frozen by either using cx_Freeze or py2exe. Can be set to "" if unused.
• PYTHONPATH [Optional]: If the source file of your code is not found, add the path here. Otherwise set it to "".
• UDF_PATH [Optional, Windows only]: Full path to a Python file from which the User Defined Functions are being imported. Example: UDF_PATH = ThisWorkbook.Path & "\functions.py" Default: UDF_PATH = "" defaults to a file in the same directory of the Excel spreadsheet with the same name but ending in .py.
• LOG_FILE [Optional]: Leave empty for default location (see below) or provide directory including file name.
• SHOW_LOG: If False, no pop-up with the Log messages (usually errors) will be shown. Use with care.
• OPTIMIZED_CONNECTION: Currently only on Windows, use a COM Server for an efficient connection (experimental!)

### LOG_FILE default locations¶

• Windows: %APPDATA%xlwings_log.txt
• Mac 2011: /tmp/xlwings_log.txt
• Mac 2016: /Users/<User>/Library/Containers/com.microsoft.Excel/Data/xlwings_log.txt

Note

If the settings (especially PYTHONPATH and LOG_FILE) need to work on Windows on Mac, use backslashes in relative file path, i.e. ThisWorkbook.Path & "\mydirectory".

Note

OPTIMIZED_CONNECTION = True works currently on Windows only and is still experimental! This will use a COM server that will keep the connection to Python alive between different calls and is therefore much more efficient. However, changes in the Python code are not being picked up until the pythonw.exe process is restarted by killing it manually in the Windows Task Manager. The suggested workflow is hence to set OPTIMIZED_CONNECTION = False for development and to only set it to True for production.

## Subtle difference between the Windows and Mac Version¶

• Windows: After calling the Macro (e.g. by pressing a button), Excel waits until Python is done.
• Mac: After calling the Macro, the call returns instantly but Excel’s Status Bar turns into Running... during the duration of the Python call.

## Call Python with “RunPython”¶

After you have imported the xlwings VBA module and potentially adjusted the Settings, go to Insert > Module (still in the VBA-Editor). This will create a new Excel module where you can write your Python call as follows:

Sub MyMacro()
RunPython ("import mymodule; mymodule.rand_numbers()")
End Sub


This essentially hands over control to mymodule.py:

import numpy as np
from xlwings import Workbook, Range

def rand_numbers():
""" produces std. normally distributed random numbers with shape (n,n)"""
wb = Workbook.caller()  # Creates a reference to the calling Excel file
n = int(Range('Sheet1', 'B1').value)  # Write desired dimensions into Cell B1
rand_num = np.random.randn(n, n)
Range('Sheet1', 'C3').value = rand_num


You can then attach MyMacro to a button or run it directly in the VBA Editor by hitting F5.

Note

Always place Workbook.caller() within the function that is being called from Excel and not outside as global variable. Otherwise it prevents Excel from shutting down properly upon exiting and leaves you with a zombie process when you use OPTIMIZED_CONNECTION = True.