# Converters¶

Introduced with v0.7.0, converters define how Excel ranges and their values are converted both during reading and writing operations. They also provide a consistent experience across xlwings.Range objects and User Defined Functions (UDFs).

Converters are explicitely set in the options method when manipulating xlwings.Range objects or in the @xw.arg and @xw.ret decorators when using UDFs. If no converter is specified, the default converter is applied when reading. When writing, xlwings will automatically apply the correct converter (if available) according to the object’s type that is being written to Excel. If no converter is found for that type, it falls back to the default converter.

Syntax:

Range UDF
reading Range.options(convert=None, **kwargs).value @arg('x', convert=None, **kwargs)
writing Range.options(convert=None, **kwargs).value = myvalue @ret(convert=None, **kwargs)

Note

Keyword arguments (kwargs) may refer to the specific converter or the default converter. For example, to set the numbers option in the default converter and the index option in the DataFrame converter, you would write:

Range('A1:C3').options(pd.DataFrame, index=False, numbers=int).value


## Default Converter¶

If no options are set, the following conversions are performed:

• single cells are read in as floats in case the Excel cell holds a number, as unicode in case it holds text, as datetime if it contains a date and as None in case it is empty.
• columns/rows are read in as lists, e.g. [None, 1.0, 'a string']
• 2d cell ranges are read in as list of lists, e.g. [[None, 1.0, 'a string'], [None, 2.0, 'another string']]

The following options can be set:

• ndim

Force the value to have either 1 or 2 dimensions regardless of the shape of the range:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> wb = Workbook()
>>> xw.Range('A1').value = [[1, 2], [3, 4]]
>>> xw.Range('A1').value
1.0
>>> xw.Range('A1').options(ndim=1).value
[1.0]
>>> xw.Range('A1').options(ndim=2).value
[[1.0]]
>>> xw.Range('A1:A2').value
[1.0 3.0]
>>> xw.Range('A1:A2').options(ndim=2).value
[[1.0], [3.0]]

• numbers

By default cells with numbers are read as float, but you can change it to int:

>>> xw.Range('A1').value = 1
>>> xw.Range('A1').value
1.0
>>> xw.Range('A1').options(numbers=int).value
1


Alternatively, you can specify any other function or type which takes a single float argument.

Using this on UDFs looks like this:

@xw.func
@xw.arg('x', numbers=int)
def myfunction(x):
# all numbers in x arrive as int
return x


Note: Excel always stores numbers internally as floats.

• dates

By default cells with dates are read as datetime.datetime, but you can change it to datetime.date:

• Range:

>>> import datetime as dt
>>> xw.Range('A1').options(dates=dt.date).value

• UDFs: @xw.arg('x', dates=dt.date)

Alternatively, you can specify any other function or type which takes the same keyword arguments as datetime.datetime, for example:

>>> my_date_handler = lambda year, month, day, **kwargs: "%04i-%02i-%02i" % (year, month, day)
>>> xw.Range('A1').options(dates=my_date_handler).value
'2017-02-20'

• empty

Empty cells are converted per default into None, you can change this as follows:

• Range: >>> xw.Range('A1').options(empty='NA').value
• UDFs: @xw.arg('x', empty='NA')
• transpose

This works for reading and writing and allows us to e.g. write a list in column orientation to Excel:

• Range: Range('A1').options(transpose=True).value = [1, 2, 3]

• UDFs:

@xw.arg('x', transpose=True)
@xw.ret(transpose=True)
def myfunction(x):
# x will be returned unchanged as transposed both when reading and writing
return x

• expand

This works the same as the Range properties table, vertical and horizontal but is only evaluated when getting the values of a Range:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> wb = xw.Workbook()
>>> xw.Range('A1').value = [[1,2], [3,4]]
>>> rng1 = xw.Range('A1').table
>>> rng2 = xw.Range('A1').options(expand='table')
>>> rng1.value
[[1.0, 2.0], [3.0, 4.0]]
>>> rng2.value
[[1.0, 2.0], [3.0, 4.0]]
>>> xw.Range('A3').value = [5, 6]
>>> rng1.value
[[1.0, 2.0], [3.0, 4.0]]
>>> rng2.value
[[1.0, 2.0], [3.0, 4.0], [5.0, 6.0]]


Note

The expand option is only available on Range objects as UDFs only allow to manipulate the calling cells.

## Built-in converters¶

xlwings offers several built-in converters that perform type conversion to dictionaries, NumPy arrays, Pandas Series and DataFrames. These build on top of the default converter, so in most case the options described above can be used in this context too (unless they are meaningless, for example the ndim in the case of a dictionary).

It is also possible to write and register custom converter for additional types. The documentation for doing this will be provided in the near future.

The samples below may be used with both xlwings.Range objects and UDFs, but the samples may only show one version.

### Dictionary converter¶

The dictionary converter turns two Excel columns into a dictionary. If the data is in row orientation, use transpose:

>>> Range('A1:B2').options(dict).value
{'a': 1.0, 'b': 2.0}
>>> Range('A4:B5').options(dict, transpose=True).value
{'a': 1.0, 'b': 2.0}


### Numpy array converter¶

options: dtype=None, copy=True, order=None, ndim=None

The first 3 options behave the same as when using np.array() directly. Also, ndim works the same as shown above for lists (under default converter) and hence returns either numpy scalars, 1d arrays or 2d arrays.

Example:

>>> import numpy as np
>>> Range('A1').options(transpose=True).value = np.array([1, 2, 3])
>>> xw.Range('A1:A3').options(np.array, ndim=2).value
array([[ 1.],
[ 2.],
[ 3.]])


### Pandas Series converter¶

options: dtype=None, copy=False, index=1, header=True

The first 2 options behave the same as when using pd.Series() directly. ndim doesn’t have an effect on Pandas series as they are always expected and returned in column orientation.

index: int or Boolean
When reading, it expects the number of index columns shown in Excel.
When writing, include or exclude the index by setting it to True or False.
header: Boolean
When reading, set it to False if Excel doesn’t show either index or series names.
When writing, include or exclude the index and series names by setting it to True or False.

For index and header, 1 and True may be used interchangeably.

Example:

>>> s = xw.Range('A1').options(pd.Series, expand='table').value
>>> s
date
2001-01-01    1
2001-01-02    2
2001-01-03    3
2001-01-04    4
2001-01-05    5
2001-01-06    6
Name: series name, dtype: float64


### Pandas DataFrame converter¶

options: dtype=None, copy=False, index=1, header=1

The first 2 options behave the same as when using pd.DataFrame() directly. ndim doesn’t have an effect on Pandas DataFrames as they are automatically read in with ndim=2.

index: int or Boolean
When reading, it expects the number of index columns shown in Excel.
When writing, include or exclude the index by setting it to True or False.
header: int or Boolean
When reading, it expects the number of column headers shown in Excel.
When writing, include or exclude the index and series names by setting it to True or False.

For index and header, 1 and True may be used interchangeably.

Example:

>>> df = xw.Range('A1:D5').options(pd.DataFrame, header=2).value
>>> df
a     b
c  d  e
ix
10  1  2  3
20  4  5  6
30  7  8  9

# Writing back using the defaults:
>>> Range('A1').value = df

# Writing back and changing some of the options, e.g. getting rid of the index:
>>> Range('B7').options(index=False).value = df


The same sample for UDF (starting in Range('A13') on screenshot) looks like this:

@xw.func