Python API

Top-level functions

xlwings.load(index=1, header=1, chunksize=5000)

Loads the selected cell(s) of the active workbook into a pandas DataFrame. If you select a single cell that has adjacent cells, the range is auto-expanded (via current region) and turned into a pandas DataFrame. If you don’t have pandas installed, it returns the values as nested lists.

Note

Only use this in an interactive context like e.g. a Jupyter notebook! Don’t use this in a script as it depends on the active book.

Parameters
  • index (bool or int, default 1) – Defines the number of columns on the left that will be turned into the DataFrame’s index

  • header (bool or int, default 1) – Defines the number of rows at the top that will be turned into the DataFrame’s columns

  • chunksize (int, default 5000) – Chunks the loading of big arrays.

Examples

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> xw.load()

See also: view

Changed in version 0.23.1.

xlwings.view(obj, sheet=None, table=True, chunksize=5000)

Opens a new workbook and displays an object on its first sheet by default. If you provide a sheet object, it will clear the sheet before displaying the object on the existing sheet.

Note

Only use this in an interactive context like e.g. a Jupyter notebook! Don’t use this in a script as it depends on the active book.

Parameters
  • obj (any type with built-in converter) – the object to display, e.g. numbers, strings, lists, numpy arrays, pandas dataframes

  • sheet (Sheet, default None) – Sheet object. If none provided, the first sheet of a new workbook is used.

  • table (bool, default True) – If your object is a pandas DataFrame, by default it is formatted as an Excel Table

  • chunksize (int, default 5000) – Chunks the loading of big arrays.

Examples

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> import pandas as pd
>>> import numpy as np
>>> df = pd.DataFrame(np.random.rand(10, 4), columns=['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'])
>>> xw.view(df)

See also: load

Changed in version 0.22.0.

Object model

Apps

class xlwings.main.Apps(impl)

A collection of all app objects:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> xw.apps
Apps([<Excel App 1668>, <Excel App 1644>])
property active

Returns the active app.

New in version 0.9.0.

add()

Creates a new App. The new App becomes the active one. Returns an App object.

property count

Returns the number of apps.

New in version 0.9.0.

keys()

Provides the PIDs of the Excel instances that act as keys in the Apps collection.

New in version 0.13.0.

App

class xlwings.App(visible=None, spec=None, add_book=True, impl=None)

An app corresponds to an Excel instance and should normally be used as context manager to make sure that everything is properly cleaned up again and to prevent zombie processes. New Excel instances can be fired up like so:

import xlwings as xw

with xw.App() as app:
    print(app.books)

An app object is a member of the apps collection:

>>> xw.apps
Apps([<Excel App 1668>, <Excel App 1644>])
>>> xw.apps[1668]  # get the available PIDs via xw.apps.keys()
<Excel App 1668>
>>> xw.apps.active
<Excel App 1668>
Parameters
  • visible (bool, default None) – Returns or sets a boolean value that determines whether the app is visible. The default leaves the state unchanged or sets visible=True if the object doesn’t exist yet.

  • spec (str, default None) –

    Mac-only, use the full path to the Excel application, e.g. /Applications/Microsoft Office 2011/Microsoft Excel or /Applications/Microsoft Excel

    On Windows, if you want to change the version of Excel that xlwings talks to, go to Control Panel > Programs and Features and Repair the Office version that you want as default.

Note

On Mac, while xlwings allows you to run multiple instances of Excel, it’s a feature that is not officially supported by Excel for Mac: Unlike on Windows, Excel will not ask you to open a read-only version of a file if it is already open in another instance. This means that you need to watch out yourself so that the same file is not being overwritten from different instances.

activate(steal_focus=False)

Activates the Excel app.

Parameters

steal_focus (bool, default False) – If True, make frontmost application and hand over focus from Python to Excel.

New in version 0.9.0.

property api

Returns the native object (pywin32 or appscript obj) of the engine being used.

New in version 0.9.0.

property books

A collection of all Book objects that are currently open.

New in version 0.9.0.

calculate()

Calculates all open books.

New in version 0.3.6.

property calculation

Returns or sets a calculation value that represents the calculation mode. Modes: 'manual', 'automatic', 'semiautomatic'

Examples

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> wb = xw.Book()
>>> wb.app.calculation = 'manual'

Changed in version 0.9.0.

property cut_copy_mode

Gets or sets the status of the cut or copy mode. Accepts False for setting and returns None, copy or cut when getting the status.

New in version 0.24.0.

property display_alerts

The default value is True. Set this property to False to suppress prompts and alert messages while code is running; when a message requires a response, Excel chooses the default response.

New in version 0.9.0.

property enable_events

True if events are enabled. Read/write boolean.

New in version 0.24.4.

property hwnd

Returns the Window handle (Windows-only).

New in version 0.9.0.

property interactive

True if Excel is in interactive mode. If you set this property to False, Excel blocks all input from the keyboard and mouse (except input to dialog boxes that are displayed by your code). Read/write Boolean. Note: Not supported on macOS.

New in version 0.24.4.

kill()

Forces the Excel app to quit by killing its process.

New in version 0.9.0.

macro(name)

Runs a Sub or Function in Excel VBA that are not part of a specific workbook but e.g. are part of an add-in.

Parameters

name (Name of Sub or Function with or without module name, e.g. 'Module1.MyMacro' or 'MyMacro') –

Examples

This VBA function:

Function MySum(x, y)
    MySum = x + y
End Function

can be accessed like this:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> app = xw.App()
>>> my_sum = app.macro('MySum')
>>> my_sum(1, 2)
3

Types are supported too:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> app = xw.App()
>>> my_sum = app.macro('MySum')
>>> my_sum(1, 2)
3

However typed arrays are not supported. So the following won’t work


Function MySum(arr() as integer)

‘’’ code here

End Function

See also: Book.macro()

New in version 0.9.0.

property pid

Returns the PID of the app.

New in version 0.9.0.

properties(**kwargs)

Context manager that allows you to easily change the app’s properties temporarily. Once the code leaves the with block, the properties are changed back to their previous state. Note: Must be used as context manager or else will have no effect. Also, you can only use app properties that you can both read and write.

Examples

import xlwings as xw
app = App()

# Sets app.display_alerts = False
with app.properties(display_alerts=False):
    # do stuff

# Sets app.calculation = 'manual' and app.enable_events = True
with app.properties(calculation='manual', enable_events=True):
    # do stuff

# Makes sure the status bar is reset even if an error happens in the with block
with app.properties(status_bar='Calculating...'):
    # do stuff

New in version 0.24.4.

quit()

Quits the application without saving any workbooks.

New in version 0.3.3.

range(cell1, cell2=None)

Range object from the active sheet of the active book, see Range().

New in version 0.9.0.

render_template(template=None, output=None, book_settings=None, **data)

This function requires xlwings PRO.

This is a convenience wrapper around mysheet.render_template

Writes the values of all key word arguments to the output file according to the template and the variables contained in there (Jinja variable syntax). Following variable types are supported:

strings, numbers, lists, simple dicts, NumPy arrays, Pandas DataFrames, pictures and Matplotlib/Plotly figures.

Parameters
  • template (str or path-like object) – Path to your Excel template, e.g. r'C:\Path\to\my_template.xlsx'

  • output (str or path-like object) – Path to your Report, e.g. r'C:\Path\to\my_report.xlsx'

  • book_settings (dict, default None) – A dictionary of xlwings.Book parameters, for details see: xlwings.Book. For example: book_settings={'update_links': False}.

  • data (kwargs) – All key/value pairs that are used in the template.

Returns

  • wb (xlwings Book)

  • .. versionadded:: 0.24.4

property screen_updating

Turn screen updating off to speed up your script. You won’t be able to see what the script is doing, but it will run faster. Remember to set the screen_updating property back to True when your script ends.

New in version 0.3.3.

property selection

Returns the selected cells as Range.

New in version 0.9.0.

property startup_path

Returns the path to XLSTART which is where the xlwings add-in gets copied to by doing xlwings addin install.

New in version 0.19.4.

property status_bar

Gets or sets the value of the status bar. Returns False if Excel has control of it.

New in version 0.20.0.

property version

Returns the Excel version number object.

Examples

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> xw.App().version
VersionNumber('15.24')
>>> xw.apps[10559].version.major
15

Changed in version 0.9.0.

property visible

Gets or sets the visibility of Excel to True or False.

New in version 0.3.3.

Books

class xlwings.main.Books(impl)

A collection of all book objects:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> xw.books  # active app
Books([<Book [Book1]>, <Book [Book2]>])
>>> xw.apps[10559].books  # specific app, get the PIDs via xw.apps.keys()
Books([<Book [Book1]>, <Book [Book2]>])

New in version 0.9.0.

property active

Returns the active Book.

add()

Creates a new Book. The new Book becomes the active Book. Returns a Book object.

open(fullname, update_links=None, read_only=None, format=None, password=None, write_res_password=None, ignore_read_only_recommended=None, origin=None, delimiter=None, editable=None, notify=None, converter=None, add_to_mru=None, local=None, corrupt_load=None)

Opens a Book if it is not open yet and returns it. If it is already open, it doesn’t raise an exception but simply returns the Book object.

Parameters
  • fullname (str or path-like object) – filename or fully qualified filename, e.g. r'C:\path\to\file.xlsx' or 'file.xlsm'. Without a full path, it looks for the file in the current working directory.

  • Parameters (Other) – see: xlwings.Book()

Returns

Book

Return type

Book that has been opened.

Book

class xlwings.Book(fullname=None, update_links=None, read_only=None, format=None, password=None, write_res_password=None, ignore_read_only_recommended=None, origin=None, delimiter=None, editable=None, notify=None, converter=None, add_to_mru=None, local=None, corrupt_load=None, impl=None)

A book object is a member of the books collection:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> xw.books[0]
<Book [Book1]>

The easiest way to connect to a book is offered by xw.Book: it looks for the book in all app instances and returns an error, should the same book be open in multiple instances. To connect to a book in the active app instance, use xw.books and to refer to a specific app, use:

>>> app = xw.App()  # or something like xw.apps[10559] for existing apps, get the PIDs via xw.apps.keys()
>>> app.books['Book1']

xw.Book

xw.books

New book

xw.Book()

xw.books.add()

Unsaved book

xw.Book('Book1')

xw.books['Book1']

Book by (full)name

xw.Book(r'C:/path/to/file.xlsx')

xw.books.open(r'C:/path/to/file.xlsx')

Parameters
  • fullname (str or path-like object, default None) – Full path or name (incl. xlsx, xlsm etc.) of existing workbook or name of an unsaved workbook. Without a full path, it looks for the file in the current working directory.

  • update_links (bool, default None) – If this argument is omitted, the user is prompted to specify how links will be updated

  • read_only (bool, default False) – True to open workbook in read-only mode

  • format (str) – If opening a text file, this specifies the delimiter character

  • password (str) – Password to open a protected workbook

  • write_res_password (str) – Password to write to a write-reserved workbook

  • ignore_read_only_recommended (bool, default False) – Set to True to mute the read-only recommended message

  • origin (int) – For text files only. Specifies where it originated. Use XlPlatform constants.

  • delimiter (str) – If format argument is 6, this specifies the delimiter.

  • editable (bool, default False) – This option is only for legacy Microsoft Excel 4.0 addins.

  • notify (bool, default False) – Notify the user when a file becomes available If the file cannot be opened in read/write mode.

  • converter (int) – The index of the first file converter to try when opening the file.

  • add_to_mru (bool, default False) – Add this workbook to the list of recently added workbooks.

  • local (bool, default False) – If True, saves files against the language of Excel, otherwise against the language of VBA. Not supported on macOS.

  • corrupt_load (int, default xlNormalLoad) – Can be one of xlNormalLoad, xlRepairFile or xlExtractData. Not supported on macOS.

activate(steal_focus=False)

Activates the book.

Parameters

steal_focus (bool, default False) – If True, make frontmost window and hand over focus from Python to Excel.

property api

Returns the native object (pywin32 or appscript obj) of the engine being used.

New in version 0.9.0.

property app

Returns an app object that represents the creator of the book.

New in version 0.9.0.

classmethod caller()

References the calling book when the Python function is called from Excel via RunPython. Pack it into the function being called from Excel, e.g.:

import xlwings as xw

 def my_macro():
    wb = xw.Book.caller()
    wb.sheets[0].range('A1').value = 1

To be able to easily invoke such code from Python for debugging, use xw.Book.set_mock_caller().

New in version 0.3.0.

close()

Closes the book without saving it.

New in version 0.1.1.

property fullname

Returns the name of the object, including its path on disk, as a string. Read-only String.

macro(name)

Runs a Sub or Function in Excel VBA.

Parameters

name (Name of Sub or Function with or without module name, e.g. 'Module1.MyMacro' or 'MyMacro') –

Examples

This VBA function:

Function MySum(x, y)
    MySum = x + y
End Function

can be accessed like this:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> wb = xw.books.active
>>> my_sum = wb.macro('MySum')
>>> my_sum(1, 2)
3

See also: App.macro()

New in version 0.7.1.

property name

Returns the name of the book as str.

property names

Returns a names collection that represents all the names in the specified book (including all sheet-specific names).

Changed in version 0.9.0.

render_template(**data)

This method requires xlwings PRO.

Replaces all Jinja variables (e.g {{ myvar }}) in the book with the keyword argument that has the same name.

New in version 0.25.0.

Parameters

data (kwargs) – All key/value pairs that are used in the template.

Examples

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> book = xw.Book()
>>> book.sheets[0]['A1:A2'].value = '{{ myvar }}'
>>> book.render_template(myvar='test')
save(path=None)

Saves the Workbook. If a path is being provided, this works like SaveAs() in Excel. If no path is specified and if the file hasn’t been saved previously, it’s being saved in the current working directory with the current filename. Existing files are overwritten without prompting.

Parameters

path (str or path-like object, default None) – Full path to the workbook

Example

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> wb = xw.Book()
>>> wb.save()
>>> wb.save(r'C:\path\to\new_file_name.xlsx')

New in version 0.3.1.

property selection

Returns the selected cells as Range.

New in version 0.9.0.

set_mock_caller()

Sets the Excel file which is used to mock xw.Book.caller() when the code is called from Python and not from Excel via RunPython.

Examples

# This code runs unchanged from Excel via RunPython and from Python directly
import os
import xlwings as xw

def my_macro():
    sht = xw.Book.caller().sheets[0]
    sht.range('A1').value = 'Hello xlwings!'

if __name__ == '__main__':
    xw.Book('file.xlsm').set_mock_caller()
    my_macro()

New in version 0.3.1.

property sheets

Returns a sheets collection that represents all the sheets in the book.

New in version 0.9.0.

to_pdf(path=None, include=None, exclude=None, layout=None, exclude_start_string='#', show=False)

Exports the whole Excel workbook or a subset of the sheets to a PDF file. If you want to print hidden sheets, you will need to list them explicitely under include.

Parameters
  • path (str or path-like object, default None) – Path to the PDF file, defaults to the same name as the workbook, in the same directory. For unsaved workbooks, it defaults to the current working directory instead.

  • include (int or str or list, default None) – Which sheets to include: provide a selection of sheets in the form of sheet indices (1-based like in Excel) or sheet names. Can be an int/str for a single sheet or a list of int/str for multiple sheets.

  • exclude (int or str or list, default None) – Which sheets to exclude: provide a selection of sheets in the form of sheet indices (1-based like in Excel) or sheet names. Can be an int/str for a single sheet or a list of int/str for multiple sheets.

  • layout (str or path-like object, default None) –

    This argument requires xlwings PRO.

    Path to a PDF file on which the report will be printed. This is ideal for headers and footers as well as borderless printing of graphics/artwork. The PDF file either needs to have only 1 page (every report page uses the same layout) or otherwise needs the same amount of pages as the report (each report page is printed on the respective page in the layout PDF).

    New in version 0.24.3.

  • exclude_start_string (str, default '#') –

    Sheet names that start with this character/string will not be printed.

    New in version 0.24.4.

  • show (bool, default False) –

    Once created, open the PDF file with the default application.

    New in version 0.24.6.

Examples

>>> wb = xw.Book()
>>> wb.sheets[0]['A1'].value = 'PDF'
>>> wb.to_pdf()

See also xlwings.Sheet.to_pdf()

New in version 0.21.1.

PageSetup

class xlwings.main.PageSetup(impl)
property api

Returns the native object (pywin32 or appscript obj) of the engine being used.

New in version 0.24.2.

property print_area

Gets or sets the range address that defines the print area.

Examples

>>> mysheet.page_setup.print_area = '$A$1:$B$3'
>>> mysheet.page_setup.print_area
'$A$1:$B$3'
>>> mysheet.page_setup.print_area = None  # clear the print_area

New in version 0.24.2.

Sheets

class xlwings.main.Sheets(impl)

A collection of all sheet objects:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> xw.sheets  # active book
Sheets([<Sheet [Book1]Sheet1>, <Sheet [Book1]Sheet2>])
>>> xw.Book('Book1').sheets  # specific book
Sheets([<Sheet [Book1]Sheet1>, <Sheet [Book1]Sheet2>])

New in version 0.9.0.

property active

Returns the active Sheet.

add(name=None, before=None, after=None)

Creates a new Sheet and makes it the active sheet.

Parameters
  • name (str, default None) – Name of the new sheet. If None, will default to Excel’s default name.

  • before (Sheet, default None) – An object that specifies the sheet before which the new sheet is added.

  • after (Sheet, default None) – An object that specifies the sheet after which the new sheet is added.

Sheet

class xlwings.Sheet(sheet=None, impl=None)

A sheet object is a member of the sheets collection:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> wb = xw.Book()
>>> wb.sheets[0]
<Sheet [Book1]Sheet1>
>>> wb.sheets['Sheet1']
<Sheet [Book1]Sheet1>
>>> wb.sheets.add()
<Sheet [Book1]Sheet2>

Changed in version 0.9.0.

activate()

Activates the Sheet and returns it.

property api

Returns the native object (pywin32 or appscript obj) of the engine being used.

New in version 0.9.0.

autofit(axis=None)

Autofits the width of either columns, rows or both on a whole Sheet.

Parameters

axis (string, default None) –

  • To autofit rows, use one of the following: rows or r

  • To autofit columns, use one of the following: columns or c

  • To autofit rows and columns, provide no arguments

Examples

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> wb = xw.Book()
>>> wb.sheets['Sheet1'].autofit('c')
>>> wb.sheets['Sheet1'].autofit('r')
>>> wb.sheets['Sheet1'].autofit()

New in version 0.2.3.

property book

Returns the Book of the specified Sheet. Read-only.

property cells

Returns a Range object that represents all the cells on the Sheet (not just the cells that are currently in use).

New in version 0.9.0.

property charts

See Charts

New in version 0.9.0.

clear()

Clears the content and formatting of the whole sheet.

clear_contents()

Clears the content of the whole sheet but leaves the formatting.

copy(before=None, after=None, name=None)

Copy a sheet to the current or a new Book. By default, it places the copied sheet after all existing sheets in the current Book. Returns the copied sheet.

New in version 0.22.0.

Parameters
  • before (sheet object, default None) – The sheet object before which you want to place the sheet

  • after (sheet object, default None) – The sheet object after which you want to place the sheet, by default it is placed after all existing sheets

  • name (str, default None) – The sheet name of the copy

Returns

Sheet object – The copied sheet

Return type

Sheet

Examples

# Create two books and add a value to the first sheet of the first book
first_book = xw.Book()
second_book = xw.Book()
first_book.sheets[0]['A1'].value = 'some value'

# Copy to same Book with the default location and name
first_book.sheets[0].copy()

# Copy to same Book with custom sheet name
first_book.sheets[0].copy(name='copied')

# Copy to second Book requires to use before or after
first_book.sheets[0].copy(after=second_book.sheets[0])
delete()

Deletes the Sheet.

property index

Returns the index of the Sheet (1-based as in Excel).

property name

Gets or sets the name of the Sheet.

property names

Returns a names collection that represents all the sheet-specific names (names defined with the “SheetName!” prefix).

New in version 0.9.0.

property page_setup

Returns a PageSetup object.

New in version 0.24.2.

property pictures

See Pictures

New in version 0.9.0.

range(cell1, cell2=None)

Returns a Range object from the active sheet of the active book, see Range().

New in version 0.9.0.

render_template(**data)

This method requires xlwings PRO.

Replaces all Jinja variables (e.g {{ myvar }}) in the sheet with the keyword argument that has the same name. Following variable types are supported:

strings, numbers, lists, simple dicts, NumPy arrays, Pandas DataFrames, PIL Image objects that have a filename and Matplotlib figures.

New in version 0.22.0.

Parameters

data (kwargs) – All key/value pairs that are used in the template.

Examples

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> book = xw.Book()
>>> book.sheets[0]['A1:A2'].value = '{{ myvar }}'
>>> book.sheets[0].render_template(myvar='test')
select()

Selects the Sheet. Select only works on the active book.

New in version 0.9.0.

property shapes

See Shapes

New in version 0.9.0.

property tables

See Tables

New in version 0.21.0.

to_pdf(path=None, layout=None, show=False)

Exports the sheet to a PDF file.

Parameters
  • path (str or path-like object, default None) – Path to the PDF file, defaults to the name of the sheet in the same directory of the workbook. For unsaved workbooks, it defaults to the current working directory instead.

  • layout (str or path-like object, default None) –

    This argument requires xlwings PRO.

    Path to a PDF file on which the report will be printed. This is ideal for headers and footers as well as borderless printing of graphics/artwork. The PDF file either needs to have only 1 page (every report page uses the same layout) or otherwise needs the same amount of pages as the report (each report page is printed on the respective page in the layout PDF).

    New in version 0.24.3.

  • show (bool, default False) –

    Once created, open the PDF file with the default application.

    New in version 0.24.6.

Examples

>>> wb = xw.Book()
>>> sheet = wb.sheets[0]
>>> sheet['A1'].value = 'PDF'
>>> sheet.to_pdf()

See also xlwings.Book.to_pdf()

New in version 0.22.3.

property used_range

Used Range of Sheet.

Returns

Return type

xw.Range

New in version 0.13.0.

property visible

Gets or sets the visibility of the Sheet (bool).

New in version 0.21.1.

Range

class xlwings.Range(cell1=None, cell2=None, **options)

Returns a Range object that represents a cell or a range of cells.

Parameters
  • cell1 (str or tuple or Range) – Name of the range in the upper-left corner in A1 notation or as index-tuple or as name or as xw.Range object. It can also specify a range using the range operator (a colon), .e.g. ‘A1:B2’

  • cell2 (str or tuple or Range, default None) – Name of the range in the lower-right corner in A1 notation or as index-tuple or as name or as xw.Range object.

Examples

Active Sheet:

import xlwings as xw
xw.Range('A1')
xw.Range('A1:C3')
xw.Range((1,1))
xw.Range((1,1), (3,3))
xw.Range('NamedRange')
xw.Range(xw.Range('A1'), xw.Range('B2'))

Specific Sheet:

xw.books['MyBook.xlsx'].sheets[0].range('A1')

Adds a hyperlink to the specified Range (single Cell)

Parameters
  • address (str) – The address of the hyperlink.

  • text_to_display (str, default None) – The text to be displayed for the hyperlink. Defaults to the hyperlink address.

  • screen_tip (str, default None) – The screen tip to be displayed when the mouse pointer is paused over the hyperlink. Default is set to ‘<address> - Click once to follow. Click and hold to select this cell.’

New in version 0.3.0.

property address

Returns a string value that represents the range reference. Use get_address() to be able to provide paramaters.

New in version 0.9.0.

property api

Returns the native object (pywin32 or appscript obj) of the engine being used.

New in version 0.9.0.

autofit()

Autofits the width and height of all cells in the range.

  • To autofit only the width of the columns use xw.Range('A1:B2').columns.autofit()

  • To autofit only the height of the rows use xw.Range('A1:B2').rows.autofit()

Changed in version 0.9.0.

clear()

Clears the content and the formatting of a Range.

clear_contents()

Clears the content of a Range but leaves the formatting.

property color

Gets and sets the background color of the specified Range.

To set the color, either use an RGB tuple (0, 0, 0) or a hex string like #efefef or an Excel color constant. To remove the background, set the color to None, see Examples.

Returns

RGB

Return type

tuple

Examples

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> wb = xw.Book()
>>> xw.Range('A1').color = (255, 255, 255)  # or '#ffffff'
>>> xw.Range('A2').color
(255, 255, 255)
>>> xw.Range('A2').color = None
>>> xw.Range('A2').color is None
True

New in version 0.3.0.

property column

Returns the number of the first column in the in the specified range. Read-only.

Returns

Return type

Integer

New in version 0.3.5.

property column_width

Gets or sets the width, in characters, of a Range. One unit of column width is equal to the width of one character in the Normal style. For proportional fonts, the width of the character 0 (zero) is used.

If all columns in the Range have the same width, returns the width. If columns in the Range have different widths, returns None.

column_width must be in the range: 0 <= column_width <= 255

Note: If the Range is outside the used range of the Worksheet, and columns in the Range have different widths, returns the width of the first column.

Returns

Return type

float

New in version 0.4.0.

property columns

Returns a RangeColumns object that represents the columns in the specified range.

New in version 0.9.0.

copy(destination=None)

Copy a range to a destination range or clipboard.

Parameters

destination (xlwings.Range) – xlwings Range to which the specified range will be copied. If omitted, the range is copied to the Clipboard.

Returns

Return type

None

copy_picture(appearance='screen', format='picture')

Copies the range to the clipboard as picture.

Parameters
  • appearance (str, default 'screen') – Either ‘screen’ or ‘printer’.

  • format (str, default 'picture') – Either ‘picture’ or ‘bitmap’.

  • versionadded: (.) – 0.24.8:

property count

Returns the number of cells.

property current_region

This property returns a Range object representing a range bounded by (but not including) any combination of blank rows and blank columns or the edges of the worksheet. It corresponds to Ctrl-* on Windows and Shift-Ctrl-Space on Mac.

Returns

Return type

Range object

delete(shift=None)

Deletes a cell or range of cells.

Parameters

shift (str, default None) – Use left or up. If omitted, Excel decides based on the shape of the range.

Returns

Return type

None

end(direction)

Returns a Range object that represents the cell at the end of the region that contains the source range. Equivalent to pressing Ctrl+Up, Ctrl+down, Ctrl+left, or Ctrl+right.

Parameters

direction (One of 'up', 'down', 'right', 'left') –

Examples

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> wb = xw.Book()
>>> xw.Range('A1:B2').value = 1
>>> xw.Range('A1').end('down')
<Range [Book1]Sheet1!$A$2>
>>> xw.Range('B2').end('right')
<Range [Book1]Sheet1!$B$2>

New in version 0.9.0.

expand(mode='table')

Expands the range according to the mode provided. Ignores empty top-left cells (unlike Range.end()).

Parameters

mode (str, default 'table') – One of 'table' (=down and right), 'down', 'right'.

Returns

Return type

Range

Examples

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> wb = xw.Book()
>>> xw.Range('A1').value = [[None, 1], [2, 3]]
>>> xw.Range('A1').expand().address
$A$1:$B$2
>>> xw.Range('A1').expand('right').address
$A$1:$B$1

New in version 0.9.0.

property formula

Gets or sets the formula for the given Range.

property formula2

Gets or sets the formula2 for the given Range.

property formula_array

Gets or sets an array formula for the given Range.

New in version 0.7.1.

get_address(row_absolute=True, column_absolute=True, include_sheetname=False, external=False)

Returns the address of the range in the specified format. address can be used instead if none of the defaults need to be changed.

Parameters
  • row_absolute (bool, default True) – Set to True to return the row part of the reference as an absolute reference.

  • column_absolute (bool, default True) – Set to True to return the column part of the reference as an absolute reference.

  • include_sheetname (bool, default False) – Set to True to include the Sheet name in the address. Ignored if external=True.

  • external (bool, default False) – Set to True to return an external reference with workbook and worksheet name.

Returns

Return type

str

Examples

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> wb = xw.Book()
>>> xw.Range((1,1)).get_address()
'$A$1'
>>> xw.Range((1,1)).get_address(False, False)
'A1'
>>> xw.Range((1,1), (3,3)).get_address(True, False, True)
'Sheet1!A$1:C$3'
>>> xw.Range((1,1), (3,3)).get_address(True, False, external=True)
'[Book1]Sheet1!A$1:C$3'

New in version 0.2.3.

property has_array

Are we part of an Array formula?

property height

Returns the height, in points, of a Range. Read-only.

Returns

Return type

float

New in version 0.4.0.

Returns the hyperlink address of the specified Range (single Cell only)

Examples

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> wb = xw.Book()
>>> xw.Range('A1').value
'www.xlwings.org'
>>> xw.Range('A1').hyperlink
'http://www.xlwings.org'

New in version 0.3.0.

insert(shift=None, copy_origin='format_from_left_or_above')

Insert a cell or range of cells into the sheet.

Parameters
  • shift (str, default None) – Use right or down. If omitted, Excel decides based on the shape of the range.

  • copy_origin (str, default format_from_left_or_above) – Use format_from_left_or_above or format_from_right_or_below. Note that this is not supported on macOS.

Returns

Return type

None

property last_cell

Returns the bottom right cell of the specified range. Read-only.

Returns

Return type

Range

Example

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> wb = xw.Book()
>>> rng = xw.Range('A1:E4')
>>> rng.last_cell.row, rng.last_cell.column
(4, 5)

New in version 0.3.5.

property left

Returns the distance, in points, from the left edge of column A to the left edge of the range. Read-only.

Returns

Return type

float

New in version 0.6.0.

merge(across=False)

Creates a merged cell from the specified Range object.

Parameters

across (bool, default False) – True to merge cells in each row of the specified Range as separate merged cells.

property merge_area

Returns a Range object that represents the merged Range containing the specified cell. If the specified cell isn’t in a merged range, this property returns the specified cell.

property merge_cells

Returns True if the Range contains merged cells, otherwise False

property name

Sets or gets the name of a Range.

New in version 0.4.0.

property note

Returns a Note object. Before the introduction of threaded comments, a Note was called a Comment.

New in version 0.24.2.

property number_format

Gets and sets the number_format of a Range.

Examples

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> wb = xw.Book()
>>> xw.Range('A1').number_format
'General'
>>> xw.Range('A1:C3').number_format = '0.00%'
>>> xw.Range('A1:C3').number_format
'0.00%'

New in version 0.2.3.

offset(row_offset=0, column_offset=0)

Returns a Range object that represents a Range that’s offset from the specified range.

Returns

Range object

Return type

Range

New in version 0.3.0.

options(convert=None, **options)

Allows you to set a converter and their options. Converters define how Excel Ranges and their values are being converted both during reading and writing operations. If no explicit converter is specified, the base converter is being applied, see Converters and Options.

Parameters

convert (object, default None) – A converter, e.g. dict, np.array, pd.DataFrame, pd.Series, defaults to default converter

Keyword Arguments
  • ndim (int, default None) – number of dimensions

  • numbers (type, default None) – type of numbers, e.g. int

  • dates (type, default None) – e.g. datetime.date defaults to datetime.datetime

  • empty (object, default None) – transformation of empty cells

  • transpose (Boolean, default False) – transpose values

  • expand (str, default None) – One of 'table', 'down', 'right'

  • chunksize (int) –

    Use a chunksize, e.g. 10000 to prevent timeout or memory issues when reading or writing large amounts

    of data. Works with all formats, including DataFrames, NumPy arrays, and list of lists.

    => For converter-specific options, see Converters and Options.

Returns

Return type

Range object

New in version 0.7.0.

paste(paste=None, operation=None, skip_blanks=False, transpose=False)

Pastes a range from the clipboard into the specified range.

Parameters
  • paste (str, default None) – One of all_merging_conditional_formats, all, all_except_borders, all_using_source_theme, column_widths, comments, formats, formulas, formulas_and_number_formats, validation, values, values_and_number_formats.

  • operation (str, default None) – One of “add”, “divide”, “multiply”, “subtract”.

  • skip_blanks (bool, default False) – Set to True to skip over blank cells

  • transpose (bool, default False) – Set to True to transpose rows and columns.

Returns

Return type

None

property raw_value

Gets and sets the values directly as delivered from/accepted by the engine that is being used (pywin32 or appscript) without going through any of xlwings’ data cleaning/converting. This can be helpful if speed is an issue but naturally will be engine specific, i.e. might remove the cross-platform compatibility.

resize(row_size=None, column_size=None)

Resizes the specified Range

Parameters
  • row_size (int > 0) – The number of rows in the new range (if None, the number of rows in the range is unchanged).

  • column_size (int > 0) – The number of columns in the new range (if None, the number of columns in the range is unchanged).

Returns

Range object

Return type

Range

New in version 0.3.0.

property row

Returns the number of the first row in the specified range. Read-only.

Returns

Return type

Integer

New in version 0.3.5.

property row_height

Gets or sets the height, in points, of a Range. If all rows in the Range have the same height, returns the height. If rows in the Range have different heights, returns None.

row_height must be in the range: 0 <= row_height <= 409.5

Note: If the Range is outside the used range of the Worksheet, and rows in the Range have different heights, returns the height of the first row.

Returns

Return type

float

New in version 0.4.0.

property rows

Returns a RangeRows object that represents the rows in the specified range.

New in version 0.9.0.

select()

Selects the range. Select only works on the active book.

New in version 0.9.0.

property shape

Tuple of Range dimensions.

New in version 0.3.0.

property sheet

Returns the Sheet object to which the Range belongs.

New in version 0.9.0.

property size

Number of elements in the Range.

New in version 0.3.0.

property table

Returns a Table object if the range is part of one, otherwise None.

New in version 0.21.0.

to_png(path=None)

Exports the range as PNG picture.

Parameters
  • path (str or path-like, default None) – Path where you want to store the picture. Defaults to the name of the range in the same directory as the Excel file if the Excel file is stored and to the current working directory otherwise.

  • versionadded: (.) – 0.24.8:

property top

Returns the distance, in points, from the top edge of row 1 to the top edge of the range. Read-only.

Returns

Return type

float

New in version 0.6.0.

unmerge()

Separates a merged area into individual cells.

property value

Gets and sets the values for the given Range. See see xlwings.Range.options() about how to set options, e.g. to transform it into a DataFrame or how to set a chunksize.

Returns

object

Return type

returned object depends on the converter being used, see xlwings.Range.options()

property width

Returns the width, in points, of a Range. Read-only.

Returns

Return type

float

New in version 0.4.0.

property wrap_text

Returns True if the wrap_text property is enabled and False if it’s disabled. If not all cells have the same value in a range, on Windows it returns None and on macOS False.

New in version 0.23.2.

RangeRows

class xlwings.RangeRows(rng)

Represents the rows of a range. Do not construct this class directly, use Range.rows instead.

Example

import xlwings as xw

rng = xw.Range('A1:C4')

assert len(rng.rows) == 4  # or rng.rows.count

rng.rows[0].value = 'a'

assert rng.rows[2] == xw.Range('A3:C3')
assert rng.rows(2) == xw.Range('A2:C2')

for r in rng.rows:
    print(r.address)
autofit()

Autofits the height of the rows.

property count

Returns the number of rows.

New in version 0.9.0.

RangeColumns

class xlwings.RangeColumns(rng)

Represents the columns of a range. Do not construct this class directly, use Range.columns instead.

Example

import xlwings as xw

rng = xw.Range('A1:C4')

assert len(rng.columns) == 3  # or rng.columns.count

rng.columns[0].value = 'a'

assert rng.columns[2] == xw.Range('C1:C4')
assert rng.columns(2) == xw.Range('B1:B4')

for c in rng.columns:
    print(c.address)
autofit()

Autofits the width of the columns.

property count

Returns the number of columns.

New in version 0.9.0.

Shapes

class xlwings.main.Shapes(impl)

A collection of all shape objects on the specified sheet:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> xw.books['Book1'].sheets[0].shapes
Shapes([<Shape 'Oval 1' in <Sheet [Book1]Sheet1>>, <Shape 'Rectangle 1' in <Sheet [Book1]Sheet1>>])

New in version 0.9.0.

property api

Returns the native object (pywin32 or appscript obj) of the engine being used.

property count

Returns the number of objects in the collection.

Shape

class xlwings.Shape(*args, **options)

The shape object is a member of the shapes collection:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> sht = xw.books['Book1'].sheets[0]
>>> sht.shapes[0]  # or sht.shapes['ShapeName']
<Shape 'Rectangle 1' in <Sheet [Book1]Sheet1>>

Changed in version 0.9.0.

activate()

Activates the shape.

New in version 0.5.0.

property api

Returns the native object (pywin32 or appscript obj) of the engine being used.

New in version 0.19.2.

delete()

Deletes the shape.

New in version 0.5.0.

property height

Returns or sets the number of points that represent the height of the shape.

New in version 0.5.0.

property left

Returns or sets the number of points that represent the horizontal position of the shape.

New in version 0.5.0.

property name

Returns or sets the name of the shape.

New in version 0.5.0.

property parent

Returns the parent of the shape.

New in version 0.9.0.

scale_height(factor, relative_to_original_size=False, scale='scale_from_top_left')
factorfloat

For example 1.5 to scale it up to 150%

relative_to_original_sizebool, optional

If False, it scales relative to current height (default). For True must be a picture or OLE object.

scalestr, optional

One of scale_from_top_left (default), scale_from_bottom_right, scale_from_middle

New in version 0.19.2.

scale_width(factor, relative_to_original_size=False, scale='scale_from_top_left')
factorfloat

For example 1.5 to scale it up to 150%

relative_to_original_sizebool, optional

If False, it scales relative to current width (default). For True must be a picture or OLE object.

scalestr, optional

One of scale_from_top_left (default), scale_from_bottom_right, scale_from_middle

New in version 0.19.2.

property text

Returns or sets the text of a shape.

New in version 0.21.4.

property top

Returns or sets the number of points that represent the vertical position of the shape.

New in version 0.5.0.

property type

Returns the type of the shape.

New in version 0.9.0.

property width

Returns or sets the number of points that represent the width of the shape.

New in version 0.5.0.

Charts

class xlwings.main.Charts(impl)

A collection of all chart objects on the specified sheet:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> xw.books['Book1'].sheets[0].charts
Charts([<Chart 'Chart 1' in <Sheet [Book1]Sheet1>>, <Chart 'Chart 1' in <Sheet [Book1]Sheet1>>])

New in version 0.9.0.

add(left=0, top=0, width=355, height=211)

Creates a new chart on the specified sheet.

Parameters
  • left (float, default 0) – left position in points

  • top (float, default 0) – top position in points

  • width (float, default 355) – width in points

  • height (float, default 211) – height in points

Returns

Return type

Chart

Examples

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> sht = xw.Book().sheets[0]
>>> sht.range('A1').value = [['Foo1', 'Foo2'], [1, 2]]
>>> chart = sht.charts.add()
>>> chart.set_source_data(sht.range('A1').expand())
>>> chart.chart_type = 'line'
>>> chart.name
'Chart1'
property api

Returns the native object (pywin32 or appscript obj) of the engine being used.

property count

Returns the number of objects in the collection.

Chart

class xlwings.Chart(name_or_index=None, impl=None)

The chart object is a member of the charts collection:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> sht = xw.books['Book1'].sheets[0]
>>> sht.charts[0]  # or sht.charts['ChartName']
<Chart 'Chart 1' in <Sheet [Book1]Sheet1>>
property api

Returns the native object (pywin32 or appscript obj) of the engine being used.

New in version 0.9.0.

property chart_type

Returns and sets the chart type of the chart. The following chart types are available:

3d_area, 3d_area_stacked, 3d_area_stacked_100, 3d_bar_clustered, 3d_bar_stacked, 3d_bar_stacked_100, 3d_column, 3d_column_clustered, 3d_column_stacked, 3d_column_stacked_100, 3d_line, 3d_pie, 3d_pie_exploded, area, area_stacked, area_stacked_100, bar_clustered, bar_of_pie, bar_stacked, bar_stacked_100, bubble, bubble_3d_effect, column_clustered, column_stacked, column_stacked_100, combination, cone_bar_clustered, cone_bar_stacked, cone_bar_stacked_100, cone_col, cone_col_clustered, cone_col_stacked, cone_col_stacked_100, cylinder_bar_clustered, cylinder_bar_stacked, cylinder_bar_stacked_100, cylinder_col, cylinder_col_clustered, cylinder_col_stacked, cylinder_col_stacked_100, doughnut, doughnut_exploded, line, line_markers, line_markers_stacked, line_markers_stacked_100, line_stacked, line_stacked_100, pie, pie_exploded, pie_of_pie, pyramid_bar_clustered, pyramid_bar_stacked, pyramid_bar_stacked_100, pyramid_col, pyramid_col_clustered, pyramid_col_stacked, pyramid_col_stacked_100, radar, radar_filled, radar_markers, stock_hlc, stock_ohlc, stock_vhlc, stock_vohlc, surface, surface_top_view, surface_top_view_wireframe, surface_wireframe, xy_scatter, xy_scatter_lines, xy_scatter_lines_no_markers, xy_scatter_smooth, xy_scatter_smooth_no_markers

New in version 0.1.1.

delete()

Deletes the chart.

property height

Returns or sets the number of points that represent the height of the chart.

property left

Returns or sets the number of points that represent the horizontal position of the chart.

property name

Returns or sets the name of the chart.

property parent

Returns the parent of the chart.

New in version 0.9.0.

set_source_data(source)

Sets the source data range for the chart.

Parameters

source (Range) – Range object, e.g. xw.books['Book1'].sheets[0].range('A1')

to_png(path=None)

Exports the chart as PNG picture.

Parameters
  • path (str or path-like, default None) – Path where you want to store the picture. Defaults to the name of the chart in the same directory as the Excel file if the Excel file is stored and to the current working directory otherwise.

  • versionadded: (.) – 0.24.8:

property top

Returns or sets the number of points that represent the vertical position of the chart.

property width

Returns or sets the number of points that represent the width of the chart.

Pictures

class xlwings.main.Pictures(impl)

A collection of all picture objects on the specified sheet:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> xw.books['Book1'].sheets[0].pictures
Pictures([<Picture 'Picture 1' in <Sheet [Book1]Sheet1>>, <Picture 'Picture 2' in <Sheet [Book1]Sheet1>>])

New in version 0.9.0.

add(image, link_to_file=False, save_with_document=True, left=None, top=None, width=None, height=None, name=None, update=False, scale=None, format=None, anchor=None)

Adds a picture to the specified sheet.

Parameters
  • image (str or path-like object or matplotlib.figure.Figure) – Either a filepath or a Matplotlib figure object.

  • left (float, default None) – Left position in points, defaults to 0. If you use top/left, you must not provide a value for anchor.

  • top (float, default None) – Top position in points, defaults to 0. If you use top/left, you must not provide a value for anchor.

  • width (float, default None) – Width in points. Defaults to original width.

  • height (float, default None) – Height in points. Defaults to original height.

  • name (str, default None) – Excel picture name. Defaults to Excel standard name if not provided, e.g. ‘Picture 1’.

  • update (bool, default False) – Replace an existing picture with the same name. Requires name to be set.

  • scale (float, default None) – Scales your picture by the provided factor.

  • format (str, default None) – Only used if image is a Matplotlib or Plotly plot. By default, the plot is inserted in the “png” format, but you may want to change this to a vector-based format like “svg” on Windows (may require Microsoft 365) or “eps” on macOS for better print quality. If you use 'vector', it will be using 'svg' on Windows and 'eps' on macOS. To find out which formats your version of Excel supports, see: https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/topic/support-for-eps-images-has-been-turned-off-in-office-a069d664-4bcf-415e-a1b5-cbb0c334a840

  • anchor (xw.Range, default None) –

    The xlwings Range object of where you want to insert the picture. If you use anchor, you must not provide values for top/left.

    New in version 0.24.3.

Returns

Return type

Picture

Examples

  1. Picture

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> sht = xw.Book().sheets[0]
>>> sht.pictures.add(r'C:\path\to\file.png')
<Picture 'Picture 1' in <Sheet [Book1]Sheet1>>
  1. Matplotlib

>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
>>> fig = plt.figure()
>>> plt.plot([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
>>> sht.pictures.add(fig, name='MyPlot', update=True)
<Picture 'MyPlot' in <Sheet [Book1]Sheet1>>
property api

Returns the native object (pywin32 or appscript obj) of the engine being used.

property count

Returns the number of objects in the collection.

Picture

class xlwings.Picture(impl=None)

The picture object is a member of the pictures collection:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> sht = xw.books['Book1'].sheets[0]
>>> sht.pictures[0]  # or sht.charts['PictureName']
<Picture 'Picture 1' in <Sheet [Book1]Sheet1>>

Changed in version 0.9.0.

property api

Returns the native object (pywin32 or appscript obj) of the engine being used.

New in version 0.9.0.

delete()

Deletes the picture.

New in version 0.5.0.

property height

Returns or sets the number of points that represent the height of the picture.

New in version 0.5.0.

property left

Returns or sets the number of points that represent the horizontal position of the picture.

New in version 0.5.0.

property lock_aspect_ratio

True will keep the original proportion, False will allow you to change height and width independently of each other (read/write).

New in version 0.24.0.

property name

Returns or sets the name of the picture.

New in version 0.5.0.

property parent

Returns the parent of the picture.

New in version 0.9.0.

property top

Returns or sets the number of points that represent the vertical position of the picture.

New in version 0.5.0.

update(image, format=None)

Replaces an existing picture with a new one, taking over the attributes of the existing picture.

Parameters

image (str or path-like object or matplotlib.figure.Figure) – Either a filepath or a Matplotlib figure object.

New in version 0.5.0.

property width

Returns or sets the number of points that represent the width of the picture.

New in version 0.5.0.

Names

class xlwings.main.Names(impl)

A collection of all name objects in the workbook:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> sht = xw.books['Book1'].sheets[0]
>>> sht.names
[<Name 'MyName': =Sheet1!$A$3>]

New in version 0.9.0.

add(name, refers_to)

Defines a new name for a range of cells.

Parameters
  • name (str) – Specifies the text to use as the name. Names cannot include spaces and cannot be formatted as cell references.

  • refers_to (str) – Describes what the name refers to, in English, using A1-style notation.

Returns

Return type

Name

New in version 0.9.0.

property api

Returns the native object (pywin32 or appscript obj) of the engine being used.

New in version 0.9.0.

property count

Returns the number of objects in the collection.

Name

class xlwings.Name(impl)

The name object is a member of the names collection:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> sht = xw.books['Book1'].sheets[0]
>>> sht.names[0]  # or sht.names['MyName']
<Name 'MyName': =Sheet1!$A$3>

New in version 0.9.0.

property api

Returns the native object (pywin32 or appscript obj) of the engine being used.

New in version 0.9.0.

delete()

Deletes the name.

New in version 0.9.0.

property name

Returns or sets the name of the name object.

New in version 0.9.0.

property refers_to

Returns or sets the formula that the name is defined to refer to, in A1-style notation, beginning with an equal sign.

New in version 0.9.0.

property refers_to_range

Returns the Range object referred to by a Name object.

New in version 0.9.0.

Note

class xlwings.main.Note(impl)
property api

Returns the native object (pywin32 or appscript obj) of the engine being used.

New in version 0.24.2.

delete()

Delete the note.

New in version 0.24.2.

property text

Gets or sets the text of a note. Keep in mind that the note must already exist!

Examples

>>> sheet = xw.Book(...).sheets[0]
>>> sheet['A1'].note.text = 'mynote'
>>> sheet['A1'].note.text
>>> 'mynote'

New in version 0.24.2.

Tables

class xlwings.main.Tables(impl)

A collection of all table objects on the specified sheet:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> xw.books['Book1'].sheets[0].tables
Tables([<Table 'Table1' in <Sheet [Book11]Sheet1>>, <Table 'Table2' in <Sheet [Book11]Sheet1>>])

New in version 0.21.0.

add(source=None, name=None, source_type=None, link_source=None, has_headers=True, destination=None, table_style_name='TableStyleMedium2')

Creates a Table to the specified sheet.

Parameters
  • source (xlwings range, default None) – An xlwings range object, representing the data source.

  • name (str, default None) – The name of the Table. By default, it uses the autogenerated name that is assigned by Excel.

  • source_type (str, default None) – This currently defaults to xlSrcRange, i.e. expects an xlwings range object. No other options are allowed at the moment.

  • link_source (bool, default None) – Currently not implemented as this is only in case source_type is xlSrcExternal.

  • has_headers (bool or str, default True) – Indicates whether the data being imported has column labels. Defaults to True. Possible values: True, FAlse, 'guess'

  • destination (xlwings range, default None) – Currently not implemented as this is used in case source_type is xlSrcExternal.

  • table_style_name (str, default 'TableStyleMedium2') – Possible strings: 'TableStyleLightN'' (where N is 1-21), 'TableStyleMediumN' (where N is 1-28), 'TableStyleDarkN' (where N is 1-11)

Returns

Return type

Table

Examples

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> sheet = xw.Book().sheets[0]
>>> sheet['A1'].value = [['a', 'b'], [1, 2]]
>>> table = sheet.tables.add(source=sheet['A1'].expand(), name='MyTable')
>>> table
<Table 'MyTable' in <Sheet [Book1]Sheet1>>

Table

class xlwings.main.Table(*args, **options)

The table object is a member of the tables collection:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> sht = xw.books['Book1'].sheets[0]
>>> sht.tables[0]  # or sht.tables['TableName']
<Table 'Table 1' in <Sheet [Book1]Sheet1>>

New in version 0.21.0.

property api

Returns the native object (pywin32 or appscript obj) of the engine being used.

property data_body_range

Returns an xlwings range object that represents the range of values, excluding the header row

property display_name

Returns or sets the display name for the specified Table object

property header_row_range

Returns an xlwings range object that represents the range of the header row

property insert_row_range

Returns an xlwings range object representing the row where data is going to be inserted. This is only available for empty tables, otherwise it’ll return None

property name

Returns or sets the name of the Table.

property parent

Returns the parent of the table.

property range

Returns an xlwings range object of the table.

resize(range)

Resize a Table by providing an xlwings range object

New in version 0.24.4.

property show_autofilter

Turn the autofilter on or off by setting it to True or False (read/write boolean)

property show_headers

Show or hide the header (read/write)

property show_table_style_column_stripes

Returns or sets if the Column Stripes table style is used for (read/write boolean)

property show_table_style_first_column

Returns or sets if the first column is formatted (read/write boolean)

property show_table_style_last_column

Returns or sets if the last column is displayed (read/write boolean)

property show_table_style_row_stripes

Returns or sets if the Row Stripes table style is used (read/write boolean)

property show_totals

Gets or sets a boolean to show/hide the Total row.

property table_style

Gets or sets the table style. See Tables.add for possible values.

property totals_row_range

Returns an xlwings range object representing the Total row

update(data, index=True)

Updates the Excel table with the provided data. Currently restricted to DataFrames.

Changed in version 0.24.0.

Parameters
  • data (pandas DataFrame) – Currently restricted to pandas DataFrames.

  • index (bool, default True) – Whether or not the index of a pandas DataFrame should be written to the Excel table.

Returns

Return type

Table

Examples

import pandas as pd
import xlwings as xw

sheet = xw.Book('Book1.xlsx').sheets[0]
table_name = 'mytable'

# Sample DataFrame
nrows, ncols = 3, 3
df = pd.DataFrame(data=nrows * [ncols * ['test']],
                  columns=['col ' + str(i) for i in range(ncols)])

# Hide the index, then insert a new table if it doesn't exist yet,
# otherwise update the existing one
df = df.set_index('col 0')
if table_name in [table.name for table in sheet.tables]:
    sheet.tables[table_name].update(df)
else:
    mytable = sheet.tables.add(source=sheet['A1'], name=table_name).update(df)

Font

class xlwings.main.Font(impl)

The font object can be accessed as an attribute of the range or shape object.

  • mysheet['A1'].font

  • mysheet.shapes[0].font

New in version 0.23.0.

property api

Returns the native object (pywin32 or appscript obj) of the engine being used.

New in version 0.23.0.

property bold

Returns or sets the bold property (boolean).

>>> sheet['A1'].font.bold = True
>>> sheet['A1'].font.bold
True

New in version 0.23.0.

property color

Returns or sets the color property (tuple).

>>> sheet['A1'].font.color = (255, 0, 0)  # or '#ff0000'
>>> sheet['A1'].font.color
(255, 0, 0)

New in version 0.23.0.

property italic

Returns or sets the italic property (boolean).

>>> sheet['A1'].font.italic = True
>>> sheet['A1'].font.italic
True

New in version 0.23.0.

property name

Returns or sets the name of the font (str).

>>> sheet['A1'].font.name = 'Calibri'
>>> sheet['A1'].font.name
Calibri

New in version 0.23.0.

property size

Returns or sets the size (float).

>>> sheet['A1'].font.size = 13
>>> sheet['A1'].font.size
13

New in version 0.23.0.

Characters

class xlwings.main.Characters(impl)

The characters object can be accessed as an attribute of the range or shape object.

  • mysheet['A1'].characters

  • mysheet.shapes[0].characters

Note

On macOS, characters are currently not supported due to bugs/lack of support in AppleScript.

New in version 0.23.0.

property api

Returns the native object (pywin32 or appscript obj) of the engine being used.

New in version 0.23.0.

property font

Returns or sets the text property of a characters object.

>>> sheet['A1'].characters[1:3].font.bold = True
>>> sheet['A1'].characters[1:3].font.bold
True

New in version 0.23.0.

property text

Returns or sets the text property of a characters object.

>>> sheet['A1'].value = 'Python'
>>> sheet['A1'].characters[:3].text
Pyt

New in version 0.23.0.

Markdown

class xlwings.pro.Markdown(text, style=<MarkdownStyle> h1.font: .bold: True paragraph.blank_lines_after: 1 unordered_list.bullet_character: unordered_list.blank_lines_after: 1 strong.bold: True emphasis.italic: True)

Markdown objects can be assigned to a single cell or shape via myrange.value or myshape.text. They accept a string in Markdown format which will cause the text in the cell to be formatted accordingly. They can also be used in mysheet.render_template().

Note

On macOS, formatting is currently not supported, but things like bullet points will still work.

Parameters
  • text (str) – The text in Markdown syntax

  • style (MarkdownStyle object, optional) – The MarkdownStyle object defines how the text will be formatted.

Examples

>>> mysheet['A1'].value = Markdown("A text with *emphasis* and **strong** style.")
>>> myshape.text = Markdown("A text with *emphasis* and **strong** style.")

New in version 0.23.0.

MarkdownStyle

class xlwings.pro.MarkdownStyle

MarkdownStyle defines how Markdown objects are being rendered in Excel cells or shapes. Start by instantiating a MarkdownStyle object. Printing it will show you the current (default) style:

>>> style = MarkdownStyle()
>>> style
<MarkdownStyle>
h1.font: .bold: True
h1.blank_lines_after: 1
paragraph.blank_lines_after: 1
unordered_list.bullet_character: •
unordered_list.blank_lines_after: 1
strong.bold: True
emphasis.italic: True

You can override the defaults, e.g., to make **strong** text red instead of bold, do this:

>>> style.strong.bold = False
>>> style.strong.color = (255, 0, 0)
>>> style.strong
strong.color: (255, 0, 0)

New in version 0.23.0.

UDF decorators

xlwings.func(category='xlwings', volatile=False, call_in_wizard=True)

Functions decorated with xlwings.func will be imported as Function to Excel when running “Import Python UDFs”.

categoryint or str, default “xlwings”

1-14 represent built-in categories, for user-defined categories use strings

New in version 0.10.3.

volatilebool, default False

Marks a user-defined function as volatile. A volatile function must be recalculated whenever calculation occurs in any cells on the worksheet. A nonvolatile function is recalculated only when the input variables change. This method has no effect if it’s not inside a user-defined function used to calculate a worksheet cell.

New in version 0.10.3.

call_in_wizardbool, default True

Set to False to suppress the function call in the function wizard.

New in version 0.10.3.

xlwings.sub()

Functions decorated with xlwings.sub will be imported as Sub (i.e. macro) to Excel when running “Import Python UDFs”.

xlwings.arg(arg, convert=None, **options)

Apply converters and options to arguments, see also Range.options().

Examples:

Convert x into a 2-dimensional numpy array:

import xlwings as xw
import numpy as np

@xw.func
@xw.arg('x', np.array, ndim=2)
def add_one(x):
    return x + 1
xlwings.ret(convert=None, **options)

Apply converters and options to return values, see also Range.options().

Examples

  1. Suppress the index and header of a returned DataFrame:

import pandas as pd

@xw.func
@xw.ret(index=False, header=False)
def get_dataframe(n, m):
    return pd.DataFrame(np.arange(n * m).reshape((n, m)))
  1. Dynamic array:

Note

If your version of Excel supports the new native dynamic arrays, then you don’t have to do anything special, and you shouldn’t use the expand decorator! To check if your version of Excel supports it, see if you have the =UNIQUE() formula available. Native dynamic arrays were introduced in Office 365 Insider Fast at the end of September 2018.

expand='table' turns the UDF into a dynamic array. Currently you must not use volatile functions as arguments of a dynamic array, e.g. you cannot use =TODAY() as part of a dynamic array. Also note that a dynamic array needs an empty row and column at the bottom and to the right and will overwrite existing data without warning.

Unlike standard Excel arrays, dynamic arrays are being used from a single cell like a standard function and auto-expand depending on the dimensions of the returned array:

import xlwings as xw
import numpy as np

@xw.func
@xw.ret(expand='table')
def dynamic_array(n, m):
    return np.arange(n * m).reshape((n, m))

New in version 0.10.0.

Reports

class xlwings.pro.reports.Image(filename)

Use this class to provide images to either render_template().

Parameters

filename (str or pathlib.Path object) – The file name or path

class xlwings.pro.reports.Markdown(text, style=<MarkdownStyle> h1.font: .bold: True paragraph.blank_lines_after: 1 unordered_list.bullet_character: unordered_list.blank_lines_after: 1 strong.bold: True emphasis.italic: True)

Markdown objects can be assigned to a single cell or shape via myrange.value or myshape.text. They accept a string in Markdown format which will cause the text in the cell to be formatted accordingly. They can also be used in mysheet.render_template().

Note

On macOS, formatting is currently not supported, but things like bullet points will still work.

Parameters
  • text (str) – The text in Markdown syntax

  • style (MarkdownStyle object, optional) – The MarkdownStyle object defines how the text will be formatted.

Examples

>>> mysheet['A1'].value = Markdown("A text with *emphasis* and **strong** style.")
>>> myshape.text = Markdown("A text with *emphasis* and **strong** style.")

New in version 0.23.0.

class xlwings.pro.reports.MarkdownStyle

MarkdownStyle defines how Markdown objects are being rendered in Excel cells or shapes. Start by instantiating a MarkdownStyle object. Printing it will show you the current (default) style:

>>> style = MarkdownStyle()
>>> style
<MarkdownStyle>
h1.font: .bold: True
h1.blank_lines_after: 1
paragraph.blank_lines_after: 1
unordered_list.bullet_character: •
unordered_list.blank_lines_after: 1
strong.bold: True
emphasis.italic: True

You can override the defaults, e.g., to make **strong** text red instead of bold, do this:

>>> style.strong.bold = False
>>> style.strong.color = (255, 0, 0)
>>> style.strong
strong.color: (255, 0, 0)

New in version 0.23.0.

xlwings.pro.reports.render_template(template, output, book_settings=None, app=None, **data)

This function requires xlwings PRO.

This is a convenience wrapper around mysheet.render_template

Writes the values of all key word arguments to the output file according to the template and the variables contained in there (Jinja variable syntax). Following variable types are supported:

strings, numbers, lists, simple dicts, NumPy arrays, Pandas DataFrames, pictures and Matplotlib/Plotly figures.

Parameters
  • template (str) – Path to your Excel template, e.g. r'C:\Path\to\my_template.xlsx'

  • output (str) – Path to your Report, e.g. r'C:\Path\to\my_report.xlsx'

  • book_settings (dict, default None) – A dictionary of xlwings.Book parameters, for details see: xlwings.Book. For example: book_settings={'update_links': False}.

  • app (xlwings App, default None) – By passing in an xlwings App instance, you can control where your report runs and configure things like visible=False. For details see xlwings.App. By default, it creates the report in the currently active instance of Excel.

  • data (kwargs) – All key/value pairs that are used in the template.

Returns

Return type

xlwings Book

Examples

In my_template.xlsx, put the following Jinja variables in two cells: {{ title }} and {{ df }}

>>> from xlwings.pro.reports import render_template
>>> import pandas as pd
>>> df = pd.DataFrame(data=[[1,2],[3,4]])
>>> mybook = render_template('my_template.xlsx', 'my_report.xlsx', title='MyTitle', df=df)

With many template variables it may be useful to collect the data first:

>>> data = dict(title='MyTitle', df=df)
>>> mybook = render_template('my_template.xlsx', 'my_report.xlsx', **data)

If you need to handle external links or a password, use it like so:

>>> mybook = render_template('my_template.xlsx', 'my_report.xlsx',
                       book_settings={'update_links': True, 'password': 'mypassword'},
                       **data)