class Book(fullname=None, update_links=None, read_only=None, format=None, password=None, write_res_password=None, ignore_read_only_recommended=None, origin=None, delimiter=None, editable=None, notify=None, converter=None, add_to_mru=None, local=None, corrupt_load=None, impl=None, json=None, mode=None, engine=None)#

A book object is a member of the books collection:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> xw.books[0]
<Book [Book1]>

The easiest way to connect to a book is offered by xw.Book: it looks for the book in all app instances and returns an error, should the same book be open in multiple instances. To connect to a book in the active app instance, use xw.books and to refer to a specific app, use:

>>> app = xw.App()  # or xw.apps[10559] (get the PIDs via xw.apps.keys())
>>> app.books['Book1']



New book



Unsaved book



Book by (full)name



fullnamestr or path-like object, default None

Full path or name (incl. xlsx, xlsm etc.) of existing workbook or name of an unsaved workbook. Without a full path, it looks for the file in the current working directory.

update_linksbool, default None

If this argument is omitted, the user is prompted to specify how links will be updated

read_onlybool, default False

True to open workbook in read-only mode


If opening a text file, this specifies the delimiter character


Password to open a protected workbook


Password to write to a write-reserved workbook

ignore_read_only_recommendedbool, default False

Set to True to mute the read-only recommended message


For text files only. Specifies where it originated. Use Platform constants.


If format argument is 6, this specifies the delimiter.

editablebool, default False

This option is only for legacy Microsoft Excel 4.0 addins.

notifybool, default False

Notify the user when a file becomes available If the file cannot be opened in read/write mode.


The index of the first file converter to try when opening the file.

add_to_mrubool, default False

Add this workbook to the list of recently added workbooks.

localbool, default False

If True, saves files against the language of Excel, otherwise against the language of VBA. Not supported on macOS.

corrupt_loadint, default xlNormalLoad

Can be one of xlNormalLoad, xlRepairFile or xlExtractData. Not supported on macOS.


A JSON object as delivered by the MS Office Scripts or Google Apps Script xlwings module but in a deserialized form, i.e., as dictionary.

New in version 0.26.0.

modestr, default None

Either "i" (interactive (default)) or "r" (read). In interactive mode, xlwings opens the workbook in Excel, i.e., Excel needs to be installed. In read mode, xlwings reads from the file directly, without requiring Excel to be installed. Read mode requires xlwings PRO.

New in version 0.28.0.


Activates the book.


steal_focusbool, default False

If True, make frontmost window and hand over focus from Python to Excel.

property api#

Returns the native object (pywin32 or appscript obj) of the engine being used.

New in version 0.9.0.

property app#

Returns an app object that represents the creator of the book.

New in version 0.9.0.

classmethod caller()#

References the calling book when the Python function is called from Excel via RunPython. Pack it into the function being called from Excel, e.g.:

import xlwings as xw

 def my_macro():
    wb = xw.Book.caller()
    wb.sheets[0].range('A1').value = 1

To be able to easily invoke such code from Python for debugging, use xw.Book.set_mock_caller().

New in version 0.3.0.


Closes the book without saving it.

New in version 0.1.1.

property fullname#

Returns the name of the object, including its path on disk, as a string. Read-only String.


Returns a JSON serializable object as expected by the MS Office Scripts or Google Apps Script xlwings module. Only available with book objects that have been instantiated via xw.Book(json=...).

New in version 0.26.0.


Runs a Sub or Function in Excel VBA.


name : Name of Sub or Function with or without module name, e.g., 'Module1.MyMacro' or 'MyMacro'


This VBA function:

Function MySum(x, y)
    MySum = x + y
End Function

can be accessed like this:

>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> wb =
>>> my_sum = wb.macro('MySum')
>>> my_sum(1, 2)

See also: App.macro()

New in version 0.7.1.

property name#

Returns the name of the book as str.

property names#

Returns a names collection that represents all the names in the specified book (including all sheet-specific names).

Changed in version 0.9.0.


This method requires xlwings PRO.

Replaces all Jinja variables (e.g {{ myvar }}) in the book with the keyword argument of the same name.

New in version 0.25.0.


data: kwargs

All key/value pairs that are used in the template.


>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> book = xw.Book()
>>> book.sheets[0]['A1:A2'].value = '{{ myvar }}'
>>> book.render_template(myvar='test')
save(path=None, password=None)#

Saves the Workbook. If a path is provided, this works like SaveAs() in Excel. If no path is specified and if the file hasn’t been saved previously, it’s saved in the current working directory with the current filename. Existing files are overwritten without prompting. To change the file type, provide the appropriate extension, e.g. to save myfile.xlsx in the xlsb format, provide myfile.xlsb as path.


pathstr or path-like object, default None

Path where you want to save the Book.

passwordstr, default None

Protection password with max. 15 characters

New in version 0.25.1.


>>> import xlwings as xw
>>> wb = xw.Book()

New in version 0.3.1.

property selection#

Returns the selected cells as Range.

New in version 0.9.0.


Sets the Excel file which is used to mock xw.Book.caller() when the code is called from Python and not from Excel via RunPython.


# This code runs unchanged from Excel via RunPython and from Python directly
import os
import xlwings as xw

def my_macro():
    sht = xw.Book.caller().sheets[0]
    sht.range('A1').value = 'Hello xlwings!'

if __name__ == '__main__':

New in version 0.3.1.

property sheet_names#



List of sheet names in order of appearance.

New in version 0.28.1.

property sheets#

Returns a sheets collection that represents all the sheets in the book.

New in version 0.9.0.

to_pdf(path=None, include=None, exclude=None, layout=None, exclude_start_string='#', show=False, quality='standard')#

Exports the whole Excel workbook or a subset of the sheets to a PDF file. If you want to print hidden sheets, you will need to list them explicitely under include.


pathstr or path-like object, default None

Path to the PDF file, defaults to the same name as the workbook, in the same directory. For unsaved workbooks, it defaults to the current working directory instead.

includeint or str or list, default None

Which sheets to include: provide a selection of sheets in the form of sheet indices (1-based like in Excel) or sheet names. Can be an int/str for a single sheet or a list of int/str for multiple sheets.

excludeint or str or list, default None

Which sheets to exclude: provide a selection of sheets in the form of sheet indices (1-based like in Excel) or sheet names. Can be an int/str for a single sheet or a list of int/str for multiple sheets.

layoutstr or path-like object, default None

This argument requires xlwings PRO.

Path to a PDF file on which the report will be printed. This is ideal for headers and footers as well as borderless printing of graphics/artwork. The PDF file either needs to have only 1 page (every report page uses the same layout) or otherwise needs the same amount of pages as the report (each report page is printed on the respective page in the layout PDF).

New in version 0.24.3.

exclude_start_stringstr, default '#'

Sheet names that start with this character/string will not be printed.

New in version 0.24.4.

showbool, default False

Once created, open the PDF file with the default application.

New in version 0.24.6.

qualitystr, default 'standard'

Quality of the PDF file. Can either be 'standard' or 'minimum'.

New in version 0.26.2.


>>> wb = xw.Book()
>>> wb.sheets[0]['A1'].value = 'PDF'
>>> wb.to_pdf()

See also xlwings.Sheet.to_pdf()

New in version 0.21.1.